Pathogenicity of Fusarium species associated with crown and root rot of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under different condition
AbstractThis study was conducted to test the pathogenicity of Fusarium species, the causes of crown and root rot disease of wheat crop, under three different conditions (Laboratory, Greenhouse and Field) and to show the best method for pathogenicity among different conditions. Pathogenicity test of six isolates of Fusarium species (F. graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. avenaceum, F. nivale, F. solani and F. udum) was tested on durum (Simeto) cultivar of wheat by test tube method in the laboratory, the tested fungi had substantial effect on seed germination. F. oxysporum showed the highest germination failure (44.44%) which significantly differed with other species. In the greenhouse, seedlings were inoculated by spore suspension at the base of each plant stem. The most virulent fungus after 35 days of inoculation was F. oxysporum (0.78) followed by F. solani (0.70) and F. graminearum (0.66), while the lowest disease severity was recorded by F. udum (0.16). Also in the field pathogenicity experiments of three Fusarium species (F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and F. solani) were performed on a durum (Simeto) and soft (Cham6) cultivars. Spore suspension was applied at the 2- to 3-leaf Zadoks’s growth stage. Disease severity was calculated at two stages of wheat growth (Booting and Ripening).The most virulent fungus was F. graminearum (0.42) that was significantly different from other fungi. This work indicated that F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and F. solani showed higher infection than remaining tested species under three conditions. Pathogenicity test in laboratory by test tube method (In-vitro) appeared more effective than greenhouse and field experiments.
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