Spectrophotometric determination of niclosamide Via Schiff’s base formulations in pharmaceutical and veterinary preparations
AbstractIntroduction: Niclosamide(NICS) its chemical name 5-chloro-N-(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)-2-hydroxybenz-amide]is the only commercially existing molluscicide optional by the WHO for large extent use in schistosomiasis be in charge of programs . NICS and its two new synthesized derivatives constructed to float on the water surface were able to kill cercariae, also obsessed promising activity in vitro nearby to an apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma (4). Few spectrophotometric methods have been reported for the estimation of NICS as pure and in formulations, approximately these methods depend on reduction of nitro group (almost with zinc powder in acidic medium) followed by reaction with different reagents. The method based on reduction of nitro group of NICS then reaction of reduced-NICS with para- N,N-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in non-aqueous medium (methanol) to form a colored product that has been proved successfully for the estimation of NICS in pharmaceutical and veterinary formulations Material and method :All reagents used are of analytical grade and are obtained from Fluka or Aldrich , NICS was supplied from SIGMA companies. Methanolic solution of para- N,N- dimethylanimobenzaldehyde (Fluka)3%, weighing 3 g and dissolved in 100 ml methanol in a volumetric flask. All other reagents were prepared by dissolving the propriety weight in perfect solvent. A volume in the range of 0.1 to 1.7 ml of 100 µg.ml-1RNICS solution was transferred to 10 ml calibrated flasks.2ml of PNNDMABA (3.0 %) was added, and the volume was made up to 10 ml by adding methanol. The yellow Schiff's base was measured at 454 nm versus a blank solution. Results and Discussion:The optimum pH for reaction of NICS with para-N, N- dimethylanimobenzaldehyde equal to 3 which resulted by mixing the components of the reaction. The absorbance increase with increasing reagent concentration (para-N,N- dimethylanimobenzaldehyde) and reached maximum on adding volume of 2.0 ml of (3%), which also gives the highest value of determination coefficient (R2).The experimental data indicated that methanol was the optimum solvent used in dilution according to high intensity of Schiff's base and the good stability. The formation of the yellow Schiff's base being complete after mixing the components of reaction and the absorbance remained constant for at least 2 hours. Conclusion: Accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method was described for the estimation of NICS. The present method has been successfully applied for the estimation of NICS in pharmaceutical and veterinary preparations.
British Pharmacopeia (2000) CD - Rom , 3rd Edn. System Simulation Ltd., the Stationary Office, London.
Wu Y, Yang T, Li X, and Wu J. Novel derivatives of niclosamid synthesis:Its bioactivity and interaction with Schistosoma Japonicum cercariae. Dyes and Pigm.2011; 88(3): 326-332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2010.08.002
Sheng L,Wei W,Tain X, Jun L. A strategy for emergency treatment of schistosoma Japonicum -infested water . Parasites & Vectors.2011; 4(1):209-213. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-4-209
Fomovska A, Wood R , Mui E, Dubey J. Salicylanilide inhibitors of toxoplasma gondii . J. Med.
Chem.2012; 55(19):8375- 8391. https://doi.org/10.1021/jm3007596
Sastry C, Aruna M Rama A. Spectrophotometric determination of some antiamoebic and anthelmintic drugs with metol and chromium (VI).Talanta ,1988; 35 (1): 23-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-9140(88)80006-7
Othman NA, and Sultan SA. Spectrophotometric determination of niclosamide by prior reduction and subsequent diazotization-coupling with 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid - Application to tablets, Raf. J. Sci .2014;25(1) :40-52.
Othman NA, Sultan SA. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of niclosamide in pharmaceutical preparation. J.Edu. and Scie./Pure Scie.2018;27(3):40-52. https://doi.org/10.33899/edusj.2018.159307
Abdel Fattah, S. Spectrophotometric determination of niclosamide using p-benzoquinone. Spectrosc. Lett., 1970;30(5):795-804. https://doi.org/10.1080/00387019708001628
Daabees H. Selective differential spectrophotometric methods for determination of niclosamide and drotaverine hydrochloride. Anal. Lett.2000; 33 (4): 639-656. https://doi.org/10.1080/00032710008543080
Onur F, Tekin N. Spectrophotometric determination of niclosamide and thiabendazole in tablets. Anal . Lett.1994; 27 (12):2291-2301. https://doi.org/10.1080/00032719408005983
Lopatin B, Lopatina N,Bekhli A. Spectrophotometric determination of fenasal (niclosamide) in tablets. Farmatsiya (Moscow).1989; 38(3): 75-76.
Cirkovic MI, Kartalovic BR, Novakov NI ,Pelic MI,DjordjevicVL, Radosavljevic, VL, Aleksic NE. Distribution of niclosamide residues in meat and internal organs of common carp, Procedia Food Scie..2015;5:54 - 56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profoo.2015.09.014
. Kartalović BR, Pucarević MI., Zoran MA., Stanković MA.,Novakov NI, Pelić MI , Ćirković MI. Determination of niclosamide and its metabolites in liver and muscles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings, Acta Scie. Veter.2017;45:1-6. https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.80635
Paghadar C, Vadia N. Development and validation of stability indicating RP-HPLC and HPTLC for determination of Niclosamide in bulk and in synthetic mixture, Arabian J. of Chem..2015:1-12.
Cholifah S, Kartinasari W, Indrayanto G. Simultaneous HPLC determination of levamisole hydrochloride and anhydrous niclosamide in veterinary powders and its validation. J. Liq.Chromatogr. Rel. Technol.2008; 31(2):281-291. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826070701739132
Caldow M, Sharman M, Kelly M, Day J, ;Hird S, Tarbin J. Multi- residue determination of phenolic and salicylanilide anthelmintics and related compounds in bovine kidney by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr.2009;1216(46): 8200-8205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2009.04.008
Yongtao L,Fuhua W,Xiaohui A,Zhenyue W,Qiuhong Y,Jing D.Dong Residue depletion and risk assessment of niclosamide in three species of freshwater fish, Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A. 2018; 35(8): 1497-1507. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2018.1488184
John S, Geoffrey B.Estimation of residues of the molluscicide, niclosamide, in bananas by gas-liquid chroymatograph of the heptafluorobutyryle derivative of the substituted aniline moiety. Pest Sci.1980;. 10(6): 531-539.
Alemu H, Khoabane N and Tseki P. Electrochemical oxidation of Niclosamide at aglassy carbon electrode and its determination by voltammetry Bull Chem.Soc.Ethiopia.2003; 17(1): 95-106. https://doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v17i1.61740
Abreu,F, Goulart,M,and Oliveira, A. Detection of the damage caused to DNA by niclosamide using an electrochemical DNA-biosensor. Biosen. and Bioelectro.2002; 17:913-919. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-5663(02)00082-9
Copyright (c) 2019 Revista Innovaciencia
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Esta revista provee acceso libre inmediato a su contenido bajo el principio de apoyo e intercambio del conocimiento.
La Revista INNOVACIENCIA es una publicación científica de acceso abierto, distribuida bajo los términos de la licencia Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC 4.0), que permite el uso ilimitado, distribución y reproducción en cualquier medio, siempre que el autor original y la fuente sean debidamente citados.
Los artículos que se publican en la Revista INNOVACIENCIA representan el criterios de sus autores y no constituyen necesariamente la opinión oficial del organismo encargado de su difusión.