The seroprevalence of human brucellosis in different age groups patients and other associated risk factors in Duhok, Iraq

  • Mahde S Assafi
  • Muslim A Allu
  • Ibtesam S Abdulrahman
  • Mohammad I Al-Berfkani

Resumen

Introduction: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease contributing to significant health and economic problems worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence and the associated risk factors of brucellosis among people admitted to Azadi general hospital, Duhok, Iraq. Patients and Methods: A total of 1283 patient blood samples (603 males and 680 females) were collected through the period of January 2017 to December 2017 from people at different age groups admitting Azadi general hospital, Duhok, Iraq. All collected sera were screened for the seroprevalence of Brucella using Rose Bengal plate test kit. Results: Among the 1283 blood samples, the overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was 17.8%. The highest rate was recorded in age group between 21–30 years (22.7%) and the different distribution of human brucellosis among age groups was statistically significant (p=0.0076). The frequency of brucellosis in females (20%) was significantly higher than males (15.3%) (p=026). The distribution of brucellosis according to the seasonal changes was statistically significant (p= 0.003) (25.64% in July and 9.75% in December). Conclusions: The incidence of the brucellosis is high, and it remains a challenging health problem. The age, gender, and seasonal changes are considered as important risk factors for the distribution of the diseases. Surveillance programs and active screening for brucellosis are essential to prevent, control, and to reduce the incidence of the brucellosis.

Citas

Doganay, M. Human Brucellosis: Importance of Brucellosis. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov. 2013; 8(1):2-3. https://doi.org/10.2174/1574891X11308010002

Al-Bayaa, Y.J. Epidemiology of Human Brucellosis among Populations in Iraq's Provinces in 2015. J Fac Med Baghdad. 2017; 58(2). https://doi.org/10.32007/med.1936/jfacmedbagdad.v59i2.13

Yumuk, Z.; O'Callaghan, D. Brucellosis in Turkey - An Overview. Int J Infect Dis. 2012; 16(4):e228-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2011.12.011

Golshani, M.; Buozari, S. A review of Brucellosis in Iran: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Control, and Prevention. Iran Biomed J. 2017; 21(6):349-59.

Aloufi, A.D.; Memish, Z.A.; Assiri, A.M.; McNabb, S.J. Trends of Reported Human Cases of Brucellosis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2004-2012. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2016; 6(1):11-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jegh.2015.09.001

Acha, P.N.; Szfres, B. Zoonoses and Communicable Diseases Common to Man and Animals (Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health Organization, Washington, DC), 2nd Ed., 1987: pp. 579-591.

Alsubaie, S.; Almuneef, M.; Alshaalan, M.; Balkhy, H.; Albanyan, E.; Alola, S., et al. Acute Brucellosis in Saudi Families: Relationship Between Brucella Serology and Clinical Symptoms. Int J Infect Dis. 2005; 9(4):218-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2004.07.009

Franc, K.A.; Krecek, R.C.; Hasler, B.N.; Arenas-Gamboa, A.M. Brucellosis Remains a Neglected Disease in the Developing World: A Call For Interdisciplinary Action. BMC Public Health. 2018; 18(1):125. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-5016-y

Rubach, M.P.; Halliday, J.E.; Cleaveland, S.; Crump, J.A. Brucellosis in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013; 26(5):404-12. https://doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0b013e3283638104

Hegazy, Y.M.; Ridler, A.L.; Guitian, F.J. Assessment and Simulation of the Implementation of Brucellosis Control Programme in an Endemic Area of the Middle East. Epidemiol Infect. 2009; 137(10):1436-48. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268809002301

Diaz, R.; Casanova, A.; Ariza, J.; Moriyon, I. The Rose Bengal Test in Human Brucellosis: a Nglected Test for the Diagnosis of a Neglected Disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011; 5(4):e950. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000950

Alton, G.G.; Jones, L.M.; Angus, R.D.; Verger, J.M. Techniques for the Brucellosis Laboratory. Paris, France: INRA. 1988.

Yohannes, M.; Gill, J.P.; Ghatak, S.; Singh, D.K.; Tolosa, T. Comparative Evaluation of the Rose Bengal Plate Test, Standard Tube Agglutination Test and Complement Fixation Test for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis. Rev Sci Tech. 2012; 31(3):979-84. https://doi.org/10.20506/rst.31.3.2175

Morgan, W.J.; MacKinnon, D.J.; Lawson, J.R.; Cullen, G.A. The Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test in the Diagnosis of Brucellosis. Vet Rec. 1969; 85(23):636-41. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.85.23.636

Christopher, S.; Umapathy, B.L.; Ravikumar, K.L. Brucellosis: Review on the Recent Trends in Pathogenicity and Laboratory Diagnosis. J Lab Physicians. 2010; 2(2):55-60. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-2727.72149

Mohammed, I.S. Environmental, Efface and Filed Study for Source Brucella Disease. International Journal of Advanced Research. 2015; 3(7):177-84.

Gül, S.; Satilmiş, Ö.; Ozturk, B.; Gökçe, M.I.; Kuscu, F. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis among Children in the Middle Anatolia Region of Turkey. Health Popul Nutr 2014; 32(4):577-9.

McDermott, J.; Grace, D.; Zinsstag, J. Economics of brucellosis impact and control in low-income countries. Rev Sci Tech. 2013; 32(1):249-61. https://doi.org/10.20506/rst.32.1.2197

Musallam, II; Abo-Shehada, M.N.; Hegazy, Y.M.; Holt, H.R.; Guitian, F.J. Systematic review of brucellosis in the Middle East: Disease Frequency in Ruminants and Humans and Risk Factors for Human Infection. Epidemiol Infect. 2016; 144(4):671-85. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268815002575

Lucero, N.E.; Ayala, S.M.; Escobar, G.I.; Jacob, N.R. Brucella Isolated in Humans and Animals in Latin America from 1968 to 2006. Epidemiol Infect. 2008; 136(4):496-503. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268807008795

Asiimwe, B.B.; Kansiime, C.; Rwego, I.B. Risk Factors for Human Brucellosis in Agro-Pastoralist Communities of South Western Uganda: A Case-Control Study. BMC Res Notes. 2015; 8:405. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1361-z

Dean, A.S.; Crump, L.; Greter, H.; Schelling, E.; Zinsstag, J. Global Burden of Human Brucellosis: A Systematic Review of Disease Frequency. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012; 6(10):e1865. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001865

Salari, M.H. Seroepidemiological Survey of Brucellosis Among Animal Farmers of Yazd Province. Iranian J Publ Health. 2002; 31(1-2):29-32.

Al-Tawfiq, J.A.; Abukhamsin, A. A 24-year Study of the Epidemiology of Human Brucellosis in a Health-Care System in Eastern Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health. 2009; 2(2):81-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2009.03.003

Rasul, D.K.; Mansoor, I.Y. Seroprevalence of Human Brucellosis in Erbil city. Zanco J Med Sci. 2012; 16(3). https://doi.org/10.15218/zjms.2012.0038

Meky, F.A.; Hassan, E.A.; Abd Elhafez, A.M.; Aboul Fetouhl, A.M.; El-Ghazali, S.M. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Brucellosis in Alexandria Governorate. East Mediterr Health J. 2007; 13(3):677-85.

Abdelbaset, A.E.; Abushahba, M.F.N.; Hamed, M.I.; Rawy, M.S. Sero-diagnosis of Brucellosis in Sheep and Humans in Assiut and El-Minya Governorates, Egypt. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2018; 6:S63-S7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijvsm.2018.01.007

Al Mofleh, I.A.; Al Aska, A.I.; Al Sekait, M.A.; Al Balla, S.R.; Al Nasser, A.N. Brucellosis in Saudi Arabia: Epidemiology in the Central Region. Ann Saudi Med. 1996; 16(3):349-52. https://doi.org/10.5144/0256-4947.1996.349

Avdikou, I.; Maipa, V.; Alamanos, Y. Epidemiology of Human Brucellosis in a Defined Area of Northwestern Greece. Epidemiol Infect. 2005; 133(5):905-10. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268805003973

Publicado
2019-10-25
Cómo citar
Assafi, M. S., Allu, M. A., Abdulrahman, I. S., & Al-Berfkani, M. I. (2019). The seroprevalence of human brucellosis in different age groups patients and other associated risk factors in Duhok, Iraq. Revista Innovaciencia , 7(2). https://doi.org/10.15649/2346075X.479
Sección
Artículo de investigación científica y tecnológica