Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of polymeric resin (BHMET) from the reaction of malic anhydride with recycled PET as a corrosion inhibitor for C- steel in HCl

  • Yasir A Ministry of Oil, Basrah Oil Company, Basrah-Iraq
  • Khalaf A Department, of chemistry, College of Science, University of Basrah, Basrah-Iraq
  • Khalaf M Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq


Introduction: The plastic soft drink bottle from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was introduced to consumers in 1970s. Because PET have ester group its chemical recycling is preferred. To control and reduce the environmental pollution recycling and reusing of PET has turned into an imperative procedure from the ecological perspective and it has given business opportunity because of far reaching use and accessibility of PET polymer. Also another source of pollution to the environment was the corrosion of materials. Corrosion is the deterioration and loss of a material and its critical properties due to chemical, electrochemical and other reactions of the exposed material surface with the surrounding environment. Understanding corrosion mechanisms allow to use corrosion-resistant materials and altering designs. Organic inhibitors are very efficient to protect the metals from corrosion in all chemicals (acidic, basic and salt) media. There were many types of corrosion inhibitors and the organic inhibitor are being applied widely to protect metals from corrosion in many aggressive media. The aim of this study is to utilize waste PET-bottles will be depolarized by 2,2-dithioethanol to produce (Bis(2-((2-hydroxyethyl) thio) ethyl) terephthalate (BHTE), then by reacting of (BHTE) with maleic anhydride to produce Bis (2-((6-Mono malic acid –hydroxyethyl ester) sulfanyl) ethyl terephthalate(BHMET). The prepared (BHMET) will be used as corrosion inhibitor and its efficiency to protect the carbon steel in acidic will be assessed. Materials and Methods: Depolymerization of PET waste done with 2,2-dithioethanol. The weight proportion of PET to 2,2-dithioethanol   1:8 (wt%) and zinc acetate (0.5 wt% based on PET) was added as catalyst. Temperature of the reaction mixture was between 160-180 oC for 12 h, then the reaction mixture was kept at 140 oC for 3 h, then allowed to cool to room temperature. With vigorous agitation distilled water in excess to the reaction mixture to allow the black liquid viscous compound oligomer of Bis(2-((2-hydroxyethyl) thio) ethyl terephthalate (BHET) to precipitate. In a three neck round bottom (250 ml) attached with mechanical stirrer and thermometer (5.7gm) of (BHET) compound was added and heated for (15 min.) at (60 OC). Then (2.5gm) of malic anhydride and (1%) sulfuric acid was added. By the mechanical stirrer the mixture was mixed for (50 min.) at temperature (80OC). After the reaction the mixture was washed with distilled water to avoid the acid residue. Scheme (1) shows the mechanism for the prepared (BHMET) corrosion inhibitor. Results and Discussion: Polarization Tafel plot in presence and absence of different concentrations of BHMET show that the Tafel factors, inhibition efficiency (% IE), surface coverage (θ), corrosion rate and charge transfer resistance was measure. It is apparently that the shapes of the Tafel plots for the inhibited and uninhibited carbon steel are different. The current density of the inhibited carbon steel decreases, while the other parameters behavior does not change. A negative shift was observed for the corrosion potential (Ecorr) due to adsorption of the inhibitor. Tafel slopes (ßa and ßc), the anodic and catholic both decreases with the addition of BHMET. This reveals that BHMET is a mixed-type inhibitor influencing the iron dissolution and hydrogen evolution. The decrease of the positive and negative currents in the with using the corrosion inhibitor BHMET due to passivation the active sites on the surface of the electrode. At inhibitor (BHMTE) concentration of 50PPM at 298k the surface coverage and inhibition efficiency reached its maximum. Conclusions: Bis [2-{(6-Mono malic acid –hydroxyethyl ester}sulfanyl]ethyl terephthalate (BHMET) prepared and used as  corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel in 0.1M HCl solution. Two parameters effects were studied, The concentration of the inhibitor (BHMET) and the temperature. From the data, the higher (%IE) was for the 10ppm at 298 and at 313 the 10ppm was the higher inhibitor efficiency. The adsorption of the BHMET inhibitor onto the surface of the carbon steel follows the Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The prepared compound was mixed type inhibitor and the ΔG°ads indicates that the adsorption of (BHMET) inhibitor involves chemisorption.


Colomines G ,Robin J ,Tersac G , Study of the Glycolysis of PET by Oligoesters. Polymer.2005;46: 3230-3247.

Achilias D S, Roupakias C, Megalokonomos P, Lappas A A, Antonakou E V. Chemical recycling of plastic wastes made from polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). J Hazard Mater. 2007; 149 : 536-542.

Achilias D S, Chemical Recycling of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) by Pyrolysis. Potential use of the Liquid Fraction as a Raw Material for the Reproduction of the Polymer. European Polymer Journal.2007;43(6):2564-2575.

Al-Salem S M , Lettieri P , Baeyens J , Recycling and Recovery Routes of Plastic Solid Waste (PSW). A Review. Waste Management.2009; 29: 2625-2643.

Chilton T , Burnley S , Nesaratnam S , A Life Cycle Assessment of the Closed-Loop Recycling and Thermal Recovery of Post-Consumer PET.Resources, Conservation and Recycling.2010 ; 54:1241-1249.

Dullius J , Ruecker C , Oliveira V , Ligabue R, Einloft S. Chemical recycling of post-consumer PET: Alkyd resins synthesis. Progress in Organic Coatings.2006;57:123-127.

Hamad K , Kaseem M , Deri F. Recycling of waste from polymer materials: An overview of the recent Works. Polymer Degradation and Stability.2013; 98: 2801-2812.

Achilias D, Tsintzou G, Nikolaidis A, Bikiaris D, Karayannidis G. Aminolytic depolymerization of poly (ethylene terephthalate) waste in a microwave reactor. Polym Int. 2011;60: 500-506.

Valipour M , Shekarchi M ,Ghods P , Comparative studies of experimental and numerical techniques in measurement of corrosion rate and time-to-corrosion-initiation of rebar in concrete in marine environments. Cement & Concrete Composites.2014;48: 98- 107.

Kim J , Park S R , Moon I , Development of a new automatic system for fault tree analysis for chemical process industries. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering,2009;27: 1839-1844.

Al-Sherrawi M , Lyashenko V , Edaan E ,Sotnik I , Corrosion of Metal Construction Structures. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology.2018; 9(6):437-446.

Alvarez-Pampliega A and et al, Corrosion Study on Al-Rich Metal-Coated Steel by odd Random Phasemultisine Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.Electrochimica Acta.2014;124:165-175.

Juhaiman L , Polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in HCl. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.2016; 11:2247 - 2262.

Yasir A , Khalaf A , Khalaf M , Preparation and Characterization of Oligomer from Recycled PET and Evaluated as a Corrosion Inhibitor for C-Steel Material in 0.1 M HCl ,Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials.2017; 7:1- 15.

Khalaf M ,Al-Mowali A , Adam G , Rheological studies of modified maleated polyethylene/medium density polyethylene blends,Malaysian Polymer Journal.2008; 3(2): 54-64.

Silverstien M , Webster F X , Kiemle D J. Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds. 2005, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

Gauglitz G , Vo-Dinh V , Handbook of Spectroscopy, 2003,WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.).

Mistry B , Handbook of Spectroscopic Data Chemistry,2009, Oxford Book Company.

Shukla K , Quraishi M , Cefotaxime sodium: a new and efficient corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution ,Corros. Sci. 2009; 1:1007-1011.

Singh A , Singh A , Ebenso E , Inhibition Effect of Cefradine on Corrosion of Mild Steel in HCl Solution, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.2014; 9: 352-346.

Quraishi M , Shukla K , Inhibitive Effect of Imidazolium Based Aprotic Ionic Liquids on Mild Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Medium , Mater. Chem. Phys.,2004 ; 85: 420.

Uhlig H , Corrosion and Corrosion Control,1971, 2nd Ed., John Wiley and sons Inc.

Alexander M G , Beushausen H , Dehn F , Moyo P. Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting II, 2008, CRC Press.

Zerga B , and et al, Substitution Effect of two Oxygen Atoms by Sulphur Atoms in New Synthesized Benzodiazepine Molecules towards Mild Steel Corrosion Inhibition in Hydrochloric Acid, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2014; 7(10):10190-10204.

Shalabi K , Abdallah Y , Hassan H , Fouda A , Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibition of Atropa Belladonna Extract on Carbon Steel in 1 M HCl Solution, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2014,9 1468-1487.

Bhat J , Alva V , Corrosion inhibition of aluminium by 2-chloroictinic acid in HCl meduim, Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 2009; 16: 228-233.

Solmaz R , Kardas G , Yazıcı B , Erbil M , Adsorption and corrosion inhibitive properties of 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole on mild steel in hydrochloric acid media ,Colloids Surf. A Physicochem, Eng.Aspects,2009 ;312(1) :7-17.

Tao Z and et al, A study of differential polarization curves and thermodynamic properties for mild steel in acidic solution with nitrophenyltriazole derivative, Corros. Sci.,2012; 60: 205-213.

Ahamad I , Prasad R , Quraishi M , Adsorption and inhibitive properties of some new Mannich bases of Isatin derivatives on corrosion of mild steel in acidic media, Corrosion Science, 2010; 52 (4): 1472-1481.

Hackerman N , Recent Advances in Understanding Of Organic Inhibitors, Corrosion, 1962;18(9):332t-337t.

Ateya B , El-Anadouli B , El-Nizamy F , The effect of thiourea on the corrosion kinetics of mild steel in H2SO4, Corros.Sci.,1984; 24: 497- 507.

Babic-Samardzija K and et al, Inhibitive Properties and Surface Morphology of a Group of Heterocyclic Diazoles as Inhibitors for Acidic Iron Corrosion, Langmuir, 2005 ;21:12187-12196.

Bouayed M and et al , Experimental and theoretical study of organic corrosion inhibitors on iron in acidic médium, Corros. Sci.,1998;41(3):501-517.

Mansfeld F , Kending M , Tsai S , Corrosion kinetics in low conductivity media-I. Iron in natural waters, Corrosion, 1982; 22(5): 455-471.

Benali O, Larabi L , Tabti B , Harek Y , Influence of 1-methyl 2-mercapto imidazole on corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 , Anti-Corros. Met. Mat., 2005; 52 : 280-285.

Benali O, Larabi L, Mekelleche M, Harek Y, Influence of substitution of phenyl group by naphthyl in a diphenylthiourea molecule on corrosion inhibition of cold-rolled steel in 0.5 M H2SO4, J. Mater. Sci.,2006; 41(21): 7064-7073.

Talati J, Gandhi D, N-heterocyclic compounds as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium-copper alloy in hydrochloric acid,Corros. Sci.,1983; 23(12):1315-1332.

Brycki, B. and et al, Organic Corrosion Inhibitors. Corrosion Inhibitors, Principles and Recent Applications, 2018 Publish by Intech.

Brylee D B, Tiu R C A . Polymeric corrosion inhibitors for the oil and gas industry: Design principles and mechanism, Reactive and Functional Polymers, 2015; 95: 25-45.

Bouklah M. and et al. Thermodynamic characterisation of steel corrosion and inhibitor adsorption of pyridazine compounds in 0.5 M H2SO4 , Letters, 2006; 60(15):1901-1905.

Groenewoud W , Characterisation of Polymers by Thermal Analysis, 2005, first edition, Elsevier, Netherlands.

Cómo citar
A, Y., A, K., & M, K. (2019). Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of polymeric resin (BHMET) from the reaction of malic anhydride with recycled PET as a corrosion inhibitor for C- steel in HCl. Revista Innovaciencia , 7(1), 1-11.
Artículo de investigación científica y tecnológica