Panorama de las técnicas analíticas de detección y eliminación de iones de metales pesados en aguas residuales industriales

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15649/2346030X.3324

Palabras clave:

aguas residuales industriales, metales pesados, análisis espectrofotométrico, métodos de eliminación, eficacia de la eliminación

Resumen

La eliminación de iones de metales pesados de las aguas residuales es de vital importancia para la limpieza del medio ambiente y la salud humana. Diversos procesos han abordado la eliminación de iones de metales pesados de diversas fuentes de aguas residuales. Estos procesos pueden dividirse en procesos de adsorción, de membrana, químicos, eléctricos y fotocatalíticos. En este artículo se ofrece una visión global y crítica de estos métodos, analizando los medios/absorbentes utilizados, la eficacia de la eliminación, las condiciones de funcionamiento y las ventajas e inconvenientes de cada método. También se resumen los principales resultados de estudios anteriores publicados en la literatura. Cabe señalar que la investigación reciente se ha centrado generalmente en las técnicas de adsorción. Los principales obstáculos del proceso de adsorción son la capacidad de eliminar simultáneamente distintos tipos de iones, el largo tiempo de retención del adsorbente y la estabilidad del ciclo. Aunque los procesos químicos y de membrana son prácticos, los altos niveles de formación de lodos y los requisitos de postratamiento son cuestiones clave que deben abordarse en los procesos químicos. La supresión de la suciedad y las incrustaciones puede mejorar aún más la separación por membrana. Sin embargo, el pretratamiento y la limpieza periódica de la membrana suponen costes adicionales. Los métodos eléctricos también han demostrado su eficacia. Sin embargo, además de superar el problema de la formación masiva de lodos, se requiere una separación a escala industrial. Los métodos eléctricos y fotocatalíticos aún no están maduros. En el futuro, la investigación deberá centrarse en el medio ambiente.

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Publicado

01/01/2024

Cómo citar

Nadakuditi, A., & Reddy-Vangala, V. (2024). Panorama de las técnicas analíticas de detección y eliminación de iones de metales pesados en aguas residuales industriales. AiBi Revista De Investigación, Administración E Ingeniería, 12(1), ---. https://doi.org/10.15649/2346030X.3324

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