Evidencia actual de la infección por SARS-COV-2 en la gestación: Revisión de alcance

Palabras clave: Coronavirus, COVID 19, SARS-CoV-2, Embarazo, Recién Nacido

Resumen

Introducción: El SARS-CoV-2 es un Betacoronavirus, así como el SARS-CoV y el MERS-CoV, ambos asociados a abortos espontáneos, parto prematuro, morbi-mortalidad materna y alto número de ingresos a UCI en las gestantes. Además, al ser un virus nuevo, se conoce poco sobre los efectos en la gestación. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo analizar la evidencia disponible sobre el SARS-CoV-2 en la gestación.  Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura en PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, BVS y SciElo. Se realizó la crítica de la evidencia y la extracción de la información con dos instrumentos propuestos por el Instituto Joanna Briggs. Lo anterior bajo las directrices de PRISMA-ScR. Resultados: Se incluyeron 85 artículos que evidenciaron que la mayoría de gestantes con SARS-CoV-2 desarrollaron enfermedad leve a moderada, pero presentaron mayor riesgo de muerte y complicaciones comparado con las pacientes no embarazadas. Se documentó bajo riesgo de transmisión vertical y los resultados perinatales se asociaron a la severidad del cuadro clínico materno. La efectividad del tratamiento no fue concluyente. Discusión: Se discute la presentación clínica de la infección en las gestantes, la transmisión vertical, el tratamiento, la gravedad de la enfermedad y los desenlaces neonatales. Conclusiones: La COVID-19 en la gestación es una complicación que genera mayor morbimortalidad, por lo que es de vital importancia el desarrollo de más investigaciones que amplíen la comprensión de su comportamiento, las implicaciones fisiológicas, emocionales y el posible tratamiento. Esta revisión hace un análisis riguroso de la calidad de los estudios y aporta información valiosa de la evidencia.

Como citar este artículo: Guiza Romero Angel Flaminio, Saldaña Agudelo Gabriela, Vesga Gualdrón Lucy Marcela. Evidencia actual de la infección por SARS-COV-2 en la gestación: Revisión de alcance. Revista Cuidarte. 2022;13(1):e2265. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.2265     

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Biografía del autor/a

Angel Flaminio Guiza Romero, Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Departamento de enfermería, Facultad de enfermería, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogotá, Colombia.

Gabriela Saldaña Agudelo, Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Departamento de enfermería, Facultad de enfermería, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogotá, Colombia.

Lucy Marcela Vesga Gualdrón, Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Departamento de enfermería, Facultad de enfermería, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogotá, Colombia.

Citas

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Publicado
2021-12-13
Cómo citar
1.
Guiza Romero AF, Saldaña Agudelo G, Vesga Gualdrón LM. Evidencia actual de la infección por SARS-COV-2 en la gestación: Revisión de alcance. Rev Cuid [Internet]. 13 de diciembre de 2021 [citado 29 de enero de 2022];13(1). Disponible en: https://revistas.udes.edu.co/cuidarte/article/view/2265
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Artículos de Revisión